Silicon space solar cell reached 8 % efficiency at AM0
The first German solar-powered satellite “AZUR” was launched into orbit.
First multi-crystalline Si solar cell with 10 % efficiency at AM 1.5 (in cooperation with Wacker Chemitronic-Telefunken)
First fully automated terrestrial production line in screen printing technology
High efficiency Si solar cell reached 18 % efficiency at AM0
Ultrathin (5 µm) GaAs solar cell reached 20 % efficiency at AM0
First European triple-junction (TJ) GaAs space solar cell with 25 % efficiency at AM0
First CPV solar cell with more than 32% efficiency at AM1.5d
Triple-junction GaAs solar cell with 30% efficiency at AM0
World Record lattice-mismatch CPV GaAs triple-junction cell with 41.1% efficiency at AM1.5d (in cooperation with ISE)
Triple-junction solar cell with 35 % efficiency at AM1.5 for terrestrial one sun applications in large-scale production
First Quadruple-junction space solar cell 4G32C with 32% beginning-of-life efficiency and 28.7% end-of-life efficiency at AM0 conditions
Triple-junction space solar cells adapted for low-intensity low-temperature (LILT) conditions for missions to Jupiter
First quintuple-junction solar cells 5C46 for terrestrial CPV applications
Quadruple-junction space solar cells 4G32C-Advanced on 150 mm substrates
AM0 (Air Mass Zero) = standardized sun light spectrum outside the earth atmosphere.
AM1.5 (Air Mass 1.5) = standardized sun light spectrum, applied for terrestrial PV applications. It is also called AM1.5G as G stands for global and includes direct and diffuse radiation.
AM1.5d (Air Mass 1.5d) = standardized sun light spectrum, applied for terrestrial CPV applications. D stands for direct and includes direct radiation only.